State Human Development Reports for Indian States
The present Maharashtra Human Development Report (MHDR) 2012 keeps the spirit of the Eleventh and Twelfth Five Year Plans of ‘faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth’ at the core of its analysis. MHDR 2002 was the state’s first effort in focusing on the prevailing human development scenario in the spheres of growth, poverty, equity, education, health and nutrition. Since then the state has come a long way in the last decade, achieving near-complete enrolments at the primary school level, a wide coverage of health infrastructure and initiation of new incentives, to name a few. The 2012 Report goes beyond being just a situation-analysis of the current human development scenario to a more analytical exercise in facilitating a deeper understanding of what and where the inequalities are, how capabilities can be enhanced, what has been the progress, where the shortfalls are and where the thrust of efforts to promote human development should be. Recognizing the centrality of inclusive growth processes to human development, the need to study human development outcomes disaggregated by gender, rural–urban, regional and social groups is the focal point of this Report. The outcome would be the identification of specific human development goals, evidence-based policy recommendations and directions to how those excluded from the growth and human development processes can be included to reap the benefits of the same.
The 2008 Human Development Report for the State of Meghalaya expresses concern at declining rates of human development in the state and presents recommendations for moving forward with progress. This Report is the first Human Development Report for the state and it highlights Meghalaya’s achievements, and assesses challenges and strategies for future development. The Report highlights the fact that previous development efforts were concentrated primarily in urban areas and acknowledges the need for a more equitable approach. It emphasizes the need to develop better and more accessible physical, social and economic infrastructure. The Report identifies the provision of support and development of the poor and backward groups as the highest priority going forward.
The Nagaland State Human Development Report (NSHDR) aims at drawing attention to issues pertaining to human development by reviewing the progress made in the areas of sustainable income and livelihood, health, education and other correlates, which are critical for quality of life of the people. The Report has attempted to identify strengths as well as gaps and deficiencies, thereby signaling areas that require specific policy interventions. This way, the NSHDR serves simultaneously as a programming tool and a monitoring instrument for the interventions and an advocacy device for raising more resources for the state to invest in its people.
The Orissa State Human Development Report of 2004 gives a detailed examination of the state government’s efforts and achievements in areas of rural development, poverty, disaster management, income, health, education and food security. The information provided is presented with the intention of comparing future data with the current data, so that policy makers can better understand policy/programme impact and the developmental growth patterns and trends in the state of Orissa. Focus on inter-district dissimilarity in Chapter 8 and the crucial follow-up task of financing the developmental efforts in the state in Chapter 9 are key highlights of this Human Development Report.
Punjab is considered one of the most prosperous states in India. Although the success of the Green Revolution which was spearheaded by Punjab, made India not only self-sufficient with regard to food grains but also evolved it into a food exporting nation, the prosperity in Punjab has not been uniformly felt across the state. The Punjab State Human Development Report of 2004 highlights the discrepancy in the levels of achievement among the various sections of the society. The Report throws light on the existing successes, areas that need immediate attention and the possible pathways ahead with regard to working for the improvement of health services and facilities, the status of women and children, agriculture, the economy and livelihoods especially those of the marginalized Dalit community of Punjab.
The Rajasthan Human Development Report of 2002 is an illustration of the state’s commitment toward sustainable human development. The first State Human Development Report for Rajasthan examines these issues from the standpoint of livelihoods and human capabilities laying particular stress on conditions of the poor. These issues are measured in comparison to the existing national and the global targets for human development. The Report examines existing status and potential development along with current limitations of issues such as income and employment, primary education, health services and agriculture in the state. The Report lays stress on not only ensuring rapid growth, but also on ensuring that this growth is pro-poor, pro-nature, pro-women and pro-jobs.
The Sikkim Human Development Report of 2001 highlights the state’s achievements and the road ahead to realize potential developmental growth. Sikkim’s wealth in the form of natural resources and the environment play a very crucial role in realizing this impending growth. With successes such as rise in literacy rates from 7 to 70% in 50 years or 83% children attending school, this Report also throws light on the constraints that slow down the growth process, such as lack of infrastructure for industries and healthcare or the absence of adequate man power and utilization of obsolete technology for agricultural purposes. Finally this Report acknowledges governance for sustainable human development with rise in strengthening of community participation to guarantee the success of the development projects.
The Tamil Nadu Human Development Report of 2003 summarizes the overall development of the state and acts as an important tool in planning for growth, social justice and equity in the years to come. This Report discusses development in the spheres of education, employment and health and longevity, gender equity, and access to basic needs. It is critical to highlight that the Report along with analyzing the current status of development in Tamil Nadu also tends to identify suitable steps required, especially for the promotion of gender and social equality based development. This would enable the government towards growth which will be a greater indicator of success, rather than simply focusing on a rising GSDP for the state.
The Tripura Human Development Report of 2007 throws light on the significant progress in social, economic and political indicators of human development. The Report reflects on how the current status on several development parameters in Tripura is better than the Indian average. Sectors such as health and education are of main focus for the government of the state. Furthermore, the Report also shows how despite being very rich in natural resources such as forests and natural gas, the lack of adequate infrastructure in terms of processing, manufacturing, roads and railways of these resources and a non-diversified economic structure are two major drawbacks the state faces. Finally, the Report concludes by acknowledging that the level of public expenditure for human development in Tripura as a proportion of its income is substantially higher than in most states in India. Despite these successes, however, investment gaps in the areas of malnutrition and health infrastructure need to be urgently filled.
The Uttar Pradesh Human Development Report of 2008 includes three composite indices namely, Human Development index (HDI), Gender Development index (GDI) and Human Deprivation index in place of Human Poverty index (HPI). The Report is founded on the human development approach which acknowledges the possibility of a long and healthy life, acquiring knowledge and access to the resources necessary for a decent standard of living as key areas of development. The Report therefore proposes composite indices that go beyond income based measures. It throws light on the situation of education and an analysis of the condition of health along with a discussion of economic challenges with regard to employment, labour productivity and poverty eradication. The importance of women is the central theme for chapter six, while development of social groups and the challenges they face makes up chapter seven. Issues of governance are also examined before suggested strategies to address the development challenges to the state are presented.